farmstead at Bancroft Villa
residence had three main rooms with painted mortar floors
and painted walls. One room had hypocaust heating. A bath
house was installed at the south end of the villa. The area
north of the house was cobbled.
included two barns, a granary, round-houses (perhaps for
laborers, or for the traditionalists among the owners or
managers), and a walled rectangular area thought to be a
Another enclosure is thought to have been a kitchen garden, for
its sodden soil preserved remains of
brassicas, caper spurge, celery, coriander, mustard, and summer savory.
More than a century later, in about 340 CE,
main residence was remodeled and expanded to create a winged corridor
villa. A portico was added, along with more rooms and a larger bath
house. Most rooms were given mosaic floors.
pool with a
long, low, ornamental limestone wall was added,
fed with overflow water from the cold bath in the bath
house. The water flowed into and drained out of the
pool through pipes of wood, tile, and lead.
Between the pool and the house was an area of rich soil
that was probably a flower bed.
Although no planting trenches were found in the large garden
area, this may be because the soil was suitable without such trenches. At the southeast corner of the
house, an octagonal structure was built that some think was
a gazebo, while others identify it as a shrine.