Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants identified at Frocester Court Villa
 
Garden plants
Grains

Grasses
Herbs
Rushes and sedges
Trees
 

Plants at Frocester
A wide range of plant remains were found at Frocester. Some arrived at the villa as harvested grains, some may have been cultivated there, and some grew wild.  Plant remains were found of the following varieties:

 

Garden Plants: Culinary plants, medicinals, dyes
Atriplex patula Common orache
Atriplex sp.

Saltbush, spinach

Chenopodium album Fat hen, white goosefoot
Chenopodium sp.

Goosefoot

Coriandrum sativum

Coriander

Leguminosae sp Pea or bean
?Lens sp. Lentil
Mentha sp.

Mint

Pastinaca sativa Parsnip
?Pisum sativum Pea
Polygonum aviculare

Common knotgrass

Polygonum hydropiper

Water pepper

Reseda luteola

Weld

Rumex acestosella

Sorrell

Rumex acetosa

Common sorrel

Hypericum perforatum St John’s wort
Vicia faba minor Celtic bean

Valerianella dentata

Corn salad

GRAINS AND OTHER CROPS
Avena fatua

Wild oat

Avena sp

Oat

Avena strigosa

Bristle-pointed oat

Hordeum sp.

Barley

Linum catharticum

White flax

Linum usitatissimum

Flax

Secale cerealis Rye
Triticum aestivum undet

Bread/club wheat

Triticum dicoccum

Emmer wheat

Triticum sp.

Wheat

Triticum spelta

Spelt wheat

GRASSES
Gramineae undet.

Grasses

Agropyron repens

Couch grass

Bromus sp.

Brome/oat grass

Lolium perenne

Perennial ryegrass

HERBS

Aethusa cynapium

Fool's parsley

Agrostemma githago

Corn cockle

Anthemis cotula Stinking mayweed
Aphanes arvensis

Field parsley piert

Aphanes microcarpa Slender parsley piert
Capsella bursa-pastoris

Shepherd’s purse

Carduus sp. Thistle
Centaurea cyanus

Cornflower

Cicuta virosa Cowbane
Cirsium arvense

Field thistle

Cirsium vulgare Bull thistle
Euphrasia officinalis agg.

Red eyebright

Euphrasia sp. Eyebright
Eurbynchium swartzii

Moss

Galium aparine Cleavers
Hyoscyamus niger

Henbane

Lamium purpureum Red dead nettle
Leontodon hispidus

Rough hawkbit

Leontodon sp. Hawkbit
Medicago/Trifolium sp.

Clover

Papaver argemone

Long prickly-head poppy

Papaver dubium

Long-headed poppy

Plantago major Plantain
Polygonum [Fallopia] convolvulus

Black bindweed

Polygonum cf arenastrum Small-leaved knotgrass
Polygonum persicaria

Redshank

Potentilla sp. Cinquefoil
Prunella vulgaris

Self heal

Pteridium aquilinum

Bracken

Ranunculus parviflorus

Small flowered buttercup

Ranunculus repens Creeping buttercup
Rhytidiadelphus triquetris

Moss

Rumex acetosella

Sheep’s sorrel

Rumex crispus

Curly dock

Silene alba

Campion

Sonchus asper

Spiny sow thistle

Stachys sylvatica

Woundwort

Stellaria sp.

Stitchwort/chickweed

Thamniumalope curum Moss

Torilis arvensis

Hedge parsley

Urtica dioica

Stinging nettle
Rushes and Sedges
Carex flacca Glaucus sedge
Carex sp.

Sedge

Eleocharis cf. palustris Marsh/Spike rush
Eleocharis sp.

Spike rush

Juncus sp. Rush
TREES
Acer campestre Field maple
Betulus sp. Birch
Buxus sempervirens Box
Crataegus sp. Hawthorne
Fraxinus excelsior Ash
Hedera helix Ivy
Juglans regia Walnut
Populus/Salix sp. Poplar/willow
Prunus domestica Plum
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn
Pyrus sp. Apple/pear
Quercus sp. Oak
Rubus sp. Blackberry
Sambucus nigra Elderberry
Ulmus Elm


From: Frocester, a Romano-British Settlement, Its Antecedents
and Successors,
by Eddie Price

Volume I: the Site
Volume II: the Finds
 

 

 

 

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F.D. Drewitt

 

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