Wyrtig

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.
  

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The Lacnunga

The "Nine Herbs Prayer"
from the Lacnunga

Like the Leechbook of Bald, the Lacnunga takes its name from an Old English word, læc, which means healing, and its title can be translated as "Remedies."

One of the oldest of the British medical manuscripts, it is one of several documents found in British Library MS. Harley 585. The Lacnunga contains nearly 200 treatments, using medicinal plants and other materials, as well as prayers and incantations. Most of it is written in Old English and Latin, but it also includes  material in Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek, and Old Irish. Clearly, in the early Middle Ages the people of Britain were not as isolated as we might have once believed.

Though the manuscript dates from the 10th-11th century, some of the material it contains is much older. For example, a long charm now known as the "Lorica of Laidcenn" can be dated, based on the language used, to the 800s. Two other incantations in Old English -- the "Nine Herbs Charm" and a charm against a sudden stabbing pain, entitled "Wiþ færstice" -- offer a window into the British worldview and theories of disease in the 10th century.

As fascinating as the charms are, the plants named in the Lacnunga are equally intriguing. Once again, we find some old friends here, as well as some unfamiliar names.

Plants named in the Lacnunga

A-C      D-F     G-I      J-M      N-R      S-Z

Achillea millefolium

Yarrow

Gearwan

Achillea tomentosa

Yellow yarrow

Sigelwheorfe

Acrifolius

Holly

Holen

Agrimonia eupatoria

Agrimony

Agrimoniam
Garclifan

Agrostemma githago

Cockle

Githrifan

Aira caespitosa

Hassock grass

Cassuc

Ajuga reptans

Bugle

Thunor claefran

Allium cepa
Onion
Enneleac
Hwi[t]leac

Allium oleraceum

Garlic

Garleaces

Allium porrum

Leek

Bradleac

Holleac

Porleaces

Allium sativum

chives

Cropleac

Anethum graveolum

Dill

Diles

Anthemis nobilis

Roman chamomile

Maegethan

Anthriscus cerefolium

Chervil

Cearfille
Cyrfillan

Anthriscus silvestris

Cow parsley

Wudu fillen

Apium graveolens

Fen marche

Fanan merce

Apium sylvatica

Celery wild

Wudu merce

Arctium lappa

Burdock

Clate

Artemesia abrotanum

Southernwood

Oportanie

Suthrenawuda

Artemesia absinthium

Wormwood

Wermod

Artemesia pontica

Mugwort

Mugwyrt

Arum dracunculus

Arum

Arodes
Drancanse

Asparagus officinalis

Asparagus

Eorthnafele

Astula regia

Woodruff

Wudurofe

Bellis perennis
English daisy
Daeseag

Beta vulgaris

Beet

Betan

Betonica officinalis

Betony

Betonica

Brassica napa

Turnip

Aenglisene naep

Naep

Brassica oleracea

Cabbage, kale

Cawlic

Calamintha nepeta

Calamint

Hylwyrt

Cannabis sativum

Hemp

Haenep

Cardamine hirsuta

Hairy bitter cress

Lambes cerse

Carduum sylvaticum

Wild thistle

Wodethistel
Wudu thistel
Thistel, thystel

Carex

Sedge

Secg

Carlina acaulis

Carline thistle

Eafor throtan

Centaurea nigra

Knapweed

Isenhearden

Centauria major

Centaury

Banwyrt
Curmeallan

Chelidonium majus

Celandine

Cylethenie

Cilthenige

Coriandrum sativum

Coriander

Celdenian

Corylus avellana

Hazel

Haesel
Hnutbeames

Cucumis

Cucumber

Hwerhwetta

Cuminum cyminym

Cummin

Cymen

Cynoglossum officinale

Hounds tongue

Hundes micgean (dog’s urine)

A-C      D-F     G-I      J-M      N-R      S-Z

Daucus

Carrot

Feldmoran

Dipsacus fullonen
Teasel
Wulfes camb

Echium vulgare

Viper’s bugloss

Haran spicle

Eleagenus
Silverberry, oleaster

Hele lefes

Elytrigia repens

Couch grass, quick grass

Cith, Cwice, Qince (ie,quitch)

Erythraea centauria

Lesser centaury

Eorth gealla

Fel terre

Biscupwyrt

Eupatorium cannabium

Water agrimony

Hindhaeletha

Euphorbia lathyris

Wild caper

Spryngwyrt

Feniculum

Fennel

Finol

Fragaria vesca

Strawberry

Streawbergean

A-C      D-F     G-I      J-M      N-R      S-Z

Galium aparine

Hedge cleavers

Hegeclife

Foxes clife

Genista tinctoria

Dyer’s greenweed

Wuduweaxan

Gentiana pneumoanthe

Gentian marsh

Mercemergelle (marche mare gall)

Geum urbanum

Avens

Benedicte

Glechoma hederacea

Alehoof

Ground ivy

Hofe

Reade hofe

Eorth ifig

Gnaphalium margaritacceum

Everlasting

Eferlastan

Hedera helix

Ivy

Ife

Heliotropium europaeum

Heliotrope

Solsequium

Helleborus niger

Black hellebore

Ceaster aesc

Humulus lupulus

Hops

Eowohymele (eowo, ewe or female hops)
Hymela

Hyacinthus

Hyacinth

Haewene

Hyoscyamus

Henbane

Hennebellan

Belenan

Hyssopus

Hyssop

Isopo

Inula campana

Elecampane

Sperewyrt

Inula conyza

Plowman’s spikenard

Thyorwyrt (thyor=plow man)

Inula helenium

Elecampane

Elene

Haelethe (heah heolothe)

Iris florentina
Iris, fleur de luce

Fanu

Iris pseudacorus

Iris, Yellow flag

Glaedenon

A-C      D-F     G-I      J-M      N-R      S-Z

Juniperus sabina

Savine juniper

Savine

Kaempferia rotunda

Zedoary

Sidewaran

Lactuca

Wild lettuce

Wudu lehtric

Lamium purpureum

Red nettle

Reade netelan

Laurus nobilis

Laurel berry

Lauberge

Leontodon taraxacum

Dandelion

Aegwyrt

Lepidum sativum
Garden cress
Tunkerse

Levisticum officinale

Lovage

Iuefestice

Lily

Lily

Lilian

Lonicera

Honeysuckle

Wudubinden

Lupinus

Lupine

Ealhtran

Malus

Apple bark

Crab apple
Soursweet appletree

 

Apoldrinde

Wergule

Surmelst apulder

Malva

Mallow

Hoc
(Gaelic hocys = mallows)

Marrubium vulgare

Horehound

Hune

Marubian

Menta

Mint

Garden mint

 

Minte

Tunmintan

Menta silvestris

Fen mint

 

Fenminten

Mentha hirsuta

Brookmint

 

Brocminte

Mentha pulegium

Pennyroyal

Dweorgedwosl

Pollegian

Menthastrum

Wild mint

 

Hors minte

Myrica gale

Sweet gale

Gagel

Myrrhis odorata

Sweet cicely

Murran

Myrtus

Myrtle

Wyir

A-C      D-F     G-I      J-M      N-R      S-Z

Narcissus

Narcissus

Haelswyrt (hals = neck)

Nasturtium officinale

Water cress

Faen cyrsan

Nepeta cataria

Catnip

Neptam

Oxalis acetosella

Wood Sorrel

Geaces suran
(cuckoo sorrel)

Panicum crus galli

Cock's spur grass

Attorlathe

Parietaria officinalis

Pellitory

Dolhrune

Hamorwyrt

Pastinaca sativa

Parsnip

Feldmoran
Wealmoru

Petroselinum crispum

Parsley

Petresilige

Piper

Pepper

Pipera

Plantago
Plantain

Ribbe

Wegbraeden

Polemonium

Jacob’s ladder

Hlaedderwyrt

Polypodium vulgare

Fern

Eoforfearn

Potentilla anserina

Silverweed

Gelodwyrt (gelotdhre,  spine, from leaf pattern)

Potentilla reptans

Cinquefoil

Fifleafe

Primula v. elatior

Oxlip

Oxenslyppan

Primula veris

Cowslip

Cuslyppan

Prunus persicus

Peach

Persoces

Ranunculus ficaria

Lesser celandine

Crowfoot

Clufete wenwyrt (cloven wenwyrt)

Hraefnes fot

Ranunculus scleratus

Ranunculus

Clifthung

Raphanus sativa

Radish

Ontre
Raedic

Rhamnus cathartica

R. frangula

Buckthorn

Thefethorn

Rose

Rose

Rosan

Rubia minor

Cleavers

Clifwyrt

Rubus

Raspberry

Hind berige

Rubus fruticosa

Blackberry

Blaco bergean

Braemel berian

Brer

Rumex

Sorrel

Ampre

Docce

Ompre

Rumex aquaticus

Water dock

Eadoccen

Ruscum aculeatus

Butcher’s broom

Cneowholen

Ruta graveolens

Rue

Rude

A-C      D-F     G-I      J-M      N-R      S-Z

Salix rubra

Red willow

Reades seales

Salvia officinalis

Sage

Saluian

Salvia sclarea

Clary sage

Slawige

Sambucus ebula

Dwarf elder

Lithwyrt

Waelwyrt

Sambucus nigra

Elder tree

Ellen

Sanguisorba officinalis

Pimpernel

Pipeneale

Satureia hortensis

Summer savory

Saturege

Saxifraga granulata

Saxifrage

Sundcorn

Moldcorn (granular saxifrage tuber)

Scrofularia

Water betony

Brunwyrt

Sedum acre

Sedum

Stancrop

Sempervivum tectorum

Houseleek

Aloe

Singrenan

Hamwyrte

Aluwan

Senecio vulgaris

Groundsel

Grundeswylgean

Smyrnium olusatrum

Alexanders

Alexandrian

Spirea ulmaria

Meadowsweet

Medewyrt

Stellaria holostea

Stitchwort

Aethelferthincwyrt

Stellaria media

Chickweed

Cicena Mete

Symphatum officinale

Comfrey

Galluc

Tanacetum balsamita

Costmary

Cost

Tanacetum parthenium

Feverfew

Pyretran

Feferfugian

Tanacetum vulgare

Tansy

Disman

Thymus serpyllum

Thyme

Bothen

Trifolium pratense
Clover
Claefre

Tussilago

Colt’s foot

Clitan

Urtica

Nettle

Hnydele

Stime

Verbena officinalis

Vervain

Aescthrote

Veronica beccabunga

Brooklime

Lemocan

Vinca

Periwinkle

Peruica

Uica

Viola

Viola

Banwyrt

Vicia faba

Bean

Greate beane

Zingiber

Ginger

Gingifre

 

Leechdoms, wortcunning, and starcraft of early England, Vol. 3 (PDF) http://archive.org/details/leechdomswortcun03cock

 

 

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it is well to have lived, and to have seen the everlasting beauty of the world.
F.D. Drewitt

 

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