Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants whose names begin with A through C
from these 9th and 10th century sources

Capitulare de Villis

Plan of St. Gall

 

Strabo's Hortulus

Pseudo-Apuleius

Leechbook of Bald

Lacnunga

Aelfric

 

 

All plants:

A B C      D E F G      H I J K L      M N O P Q      R S T    U V W X Y Z   

 

Plants whose names begin with A, B, or C

A list of plant names found in these sources, commonly used names in Old English,
and tentative identification by scientific name

Short list of plants cited most frequently in these MSS

 

Scientific name

Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Glossary

Achillea millefolium
Yarrow

     

Millefoliu, -m
Gearwe

 

Garwe

Gearwan

Gearwe

Gaeruwe

Gearwan

Millefolium
gearwe, gearewe

Gearwe, yarrow

Mille, thousand

Foliu, leaves

Aconitum napellus

Monkshood

       

Miclan žung

žunge

žunges

 

 

Aconita... žung

Aconitum, wolf's bane

Žung, a poisonous plant

Miclan, great

Acorus calamus

Calamus

       

Hreode

Hreod

Hreodes

 

Calamus... canna,,,Arundo... hreod

Calamus, a reed

Acrifolius
Ilex aquifolium

Holly

       

Holenrinde

Holenrinda

Holenleafa

Holenleaf

 

Ulcia, holen

Acrifolius, holen

Holen, holly

Rinde, bark

Ulcus, wound

Aegopodium podagraria

Goutweed, ground elder

     

Uermenaca,
ęscžrotu ęscžrote
 

Ęscžrotan, ęscžrotu, ęscžrote, gotwože

gotwožan

Ęscšrote

Aesc, ash, gray

Got, gout

žrotu, throat

Podagra, gout

Uermenaca, from L. vermen, worm; OE for gout was deįgwyrmede, dew-wormy

Wothe, song, charm

Agrimonia eupatoria

Agrimony

   

Agrimonia

Acrimonia, -n

Argimoniam, agrimonia... garclife Argimonia/m ...garclife

Garclifan

Garclife, garclifan,

Agrimonia

Agrimonian

Gardclifan Garclife

Acrimonian...

garcliue

Agrimonia garclifu, carclife, gorclifu, garclife

Ogremoyne

Agrimonia, perhaps from Gk argemone, poppy

Gar, a spear

Clife, cleave, adhere

Agrostemma githago

Cockle

     

Coccele

Gižrifan

Gyžrifan

Githrife

Githrofan Gyžhrofan Gythrifan

Coccele, coccel

Agro, soil, field, farm, land

Stemma, garland

Coccele from coccus, berry, fruit

Gith, git, plant with tiny black seeds

Rif. perhaps from ON rafa, to wander

Scientific name

Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Glossary

Aira caespitosa

Hassock grass

Or Carex sp., Reed

       

Cassuc

Cassuc

  Hassuc, OE, a clump of grass like a cushion or hassock

Ajuga reptans

Bugle

         

žunorclęfran

 

Ajuga, L. jungere, to join together

Reptans, creeping

Thunor, thunder

Claefran, clover 

Algae

Seaweed, tang

       

Fleotwyrt

 

 Alga... saewar

Fleot, where vessels float, such as a bay or river mouth

Sae, sea

War, seaweed, tang

Allium ssp.

 

   

Leace

Leaces

Leac

Leace

Brade leaces

Leac

Algium leac

Aligum leac

Allium leac

Leac, leek; earlier, a garden plant, as in leactun, garden

Allium ascalonicum

Shallot

Ascalonicas

     

Ciepan

Cipan

Cipe

Holleac

 

Ascalonia... cipe

Ascalon, now Askalon, a seaport  in what is now Jordan

Cipe, Gk kąpia, clove of garlic

Holh, hollow 

Leac, leek

Allium cepa
Onion

Cepas

Cepas

 

Cipean

Cipan

Ciepan

Cipan

Cipe

Cipe, leac

Enneleac
Hwi[t]leac

Enneleac... caepe

Hwiteac

 

Cipe, Gk kąpia, clove of garlic

Leac, leek

Hwit, white

Enne, from unio, onion with a single bulb

Allium oleraceum, A. sativum

Wild garlic, Garlic

Alia

Aleas

 

Garleac

Garleac

Garleaces

Garleaces

Garleac

Garleac

Gar, dart, javelin, spear

Leac, leek

Crop, cluster of berries, leaves

  

Allium porrum
Common leek

Porros

Porros

 

Cropleac Cropleaces

Leaces

Leac

Leac

Leace

Brad leaces

Bradeleac

Por

Porr

Porres

Heafdehtes porres

Rade leace

Cropleac

Porleaces

Bradeleac

Brade leaces

 

Crop, a bunch, an umble

Leac, leek; earlier, a garden plant

Por, leek

Porrage orig. meant leek soup

Brad, broad

Heįfodeht porres, a leek with a head (umbel)

Allium schoenoprasum
Chives

Britlas

     

Secgleac

Secgleac

 

Secg, sedge

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Allium ursinum, Wild garlic, Welsh onion

Unions

     

Bradleac

Bradeleaces

Rameson

Bradeleac

Acetula, ramese

Ramesan

Acitella, crop, bunch

Rames, rams

Brade, broad

Leac, leek; earlier, garden plant

Allium vineale
Crow garlic

       

Cropleac

Cropleaces

Hermodactylos... greata crauleac

Cropleac 

Crawan leac... Hermodactyla tidolosa... crawanleac

Crop, cluster of berries, leaves

Hermodactyla, Hermes' finger, from shape of root

Leac, leek; earlier, garden plant

Althaea officinalis
Marshmallow

Mismalvas

   

Mersc mealuwe

Hibiscum/us...

mersc mealwe

Merscmealwe

Merscmealwan

Merscealwan

Sęmintan

Bisceopwyrt

Bisceopwyrte

Bisceopwyrt

Biscopwyrt

Bradan biscopwyrt

Althea, mercemealewe

Bisceopwyrt

Althea, to heal

Mersc, marsh

Mealwe, mallow

Biscop, bishop

Wertil, plant

Amaranthus blitum
Amaranth, blite

Blidas

           

Blidas, spinach-like  plant

Ammi majus
Bishop's wort

Ameum

     

Ameos hatte sužerne wyrt

 

 

 

Sužerne wyrt, southern plant

A     B     C     DE     F    GH    IJK     L     M     NO     PQ     R     S     TU    VWXYZ

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Anethum graveolens
Dill

Anetum

Anetum

 

Anetum... dyle

Anetum... dile

Dile

Diles

Anetum, dill

Dile

Diles

Dyles

Anetum...  dile

Graveolens, strong smelling

Anthemis nobile

Roman chamomile

     

Camemelon, magethe

Magethe

Magthan

Magtha

Megetham

Magethan

Magothan

Magothe

Maege

Maegethan

Magethan

Maegethe

Magethe, maid, May weed

Chamomile, earth apple

Anthemis tinctoria

Red mayweed

       

Reade magžan

Readan magožan

   

Maegethe, maid, May weed

reade, red

Anthriscus cerefolium
Chervil

Cerfolium

Cerfolium

Cerfolium

 

Cerefolium... cerfille

Cearfille

Cerfille

Cyrfillian

Cerfille

Cerfillan

Ceruillan

Ceruellan

Cearfille

Cyrfillan

Fille

Serpillum... fille

Fil

Serpellim.. fill

Cerpillum... fil

Cer, cear, cyr, cheer

Fille, leaf 

Anthriscus silvestris

Cow parsley

     

Wudu ceruille

Sparagia agrestis... wudu cerfillu

Sparagia agrestis... wuduceruille

Wuducyrfilllan

Wuduceaerfillan

Wuducerfillan

Wuducyrfillan

 

Anghriscus,

Wudu, wild, forest

Cer, cear, cyr, cheer

Fille, leaf

Silvestris, of the forest

Sparagia, sprout, shoot

Agrestis, field

Aphanes arvensis

Parsley pert

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camicula ... aragella

Camicula... argentilla

Carnicula... argentile

Camiculo... argentilla

Camicula... argentillae

Aphanes, hidden

Argent, silver

Arvensis, fields

Apium graveolens

Wild celery, smallage

Apium

Apium

Apium

Merces, merce, Appium... merce Apium ...merce

Merces

Merce

Appium... merce

Apium... merce

Merce

Merces

Wudumerce

Merece... mentam

 

Merce, merces,

Appium...merce. Apium... merce

Wudamerce

Wudumerces

 

Merce

Appium, merce

Apium merc

Apium merce

Wudu, wild, forest

Merce, like parsley

Fanan, fen, marsh

Ea, water

Graveolens, strong smelling

Apium sylvatica

Celery wild

 

 

 

 

 Wudumerce

 

Wudamerce

Wudumerce

Wudumerces

Merce

Wudu, wild, forest

Merce, like parsley 

A     B     C     DE     F    GH    IJK     L     M     NO     PQ     R     S     TU    VWXYZ

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Arctium lappa
Great burdock

Parduna

 

Fhylantropos... geclyfian... clate

Bete, Personaciam ... boete

Personicia... bete

 

Eawyrt

Eawyrte

Clatan

Clate

Smalan clatan

Clifan

Clifwyrt

Betan, bete

Foxes clate

Foxes clife

Clate

Catan

Cližwyrt

Clifwyrt... foxes clife... eawyrt

[C]li[f]tan

Lancg cliton

Eawyrt

Betan

Bete

Beton

Clifwyrt... foxesclife... eawyrt

Lappa clate... clyfwyrt

Apasina... clife

Clife, clyf, cleave, adhere

Clate, burdock

Ea, water

Lappa, burdock

Philanthropos, lover of humanity  

Aristolochia rotunda

A. clematis

Birthwort

 

 

 

Aristolochiam ...smerowyrt

Aristolocia...  smerowyrt

Smeruwyrt

 

Aristologia, Smerewyrt

Aristolochia, best childbirth

Rotunda, round

Smero, grease, butter, fat 

Artemesia abrotanon
Southernwood

Abrotanum

 

 

Sutherne wuda

Abrotanum ... sutherne wuda

Abrotanus... sutherne wuda

Aprotanan, aprotane, aprotanean

Sužernan wermod...  prutene

Sutherne wermod

Suthernan wermod ... prutene ... wermod

Oportanie

Suthernewuda

 

Abrotanum sutherwude

Aprotanus suthernewude

Abrotanum sothrenewude

Suthern, from the south

Wudu, wild, wood

Wer, human

Mod, courage

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Artemesia absinthium

Wormwood

 

 

Absinthium

Wermod

Waermod, absinthium... wermod

Absinthius... wermod

 

Wermod

Wermode

Wermodes

Sužernan wermod...

Prutene... wermod

Fula wermod

Wermod

Wyrmod Wermodes

Wyrmod

Absintium wermod

Absinthium wermot

Wermod

Fula, foul

Wer, man

Mod, courage

 

Artemesia vulgaris

Mugwort

 

 

Ambrosia

Artemesia... mugvyrt

Mugcwyrt

Artemesia tangantes... mugvyrt

Mucgwyrt

Mugcwyrt

Mvgwyrt

Artemesiam leptefilos ... mucgwyrt

Artemisia leptefillos... mucgwyrt

Artemesia

Mucgwyrt

Mudguyrt

Mycgwyrte

Mucgwyrte

 

Mugwyrt

Mucgwyrt

Artemesia, mugcwyrt

Artemessia, mugwurt

Artemesia... matrum herba... mugwyrt

Mucg, midge, small fly

Artemesia, herb of Artemis

Matrum, mother's

Herba, plant

Arum maculatum
Arum

 

 

 

Arod

Arodes

 

 Arod, honored

Asarum europaeum,
European wild ginger

 

 

 

 

Asaru

 

 

 

 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Asparagus officinalis

Asparagus

 

 

 

Sparagiagrestis... wudu cerfillu

Sparagia agrestis... wuduceruille

Eorthnaflan

Eorthnafala

Eorthnafolan

 

Eoržnafala

Miclan eoržnafolan

Eoržnafelan

Readan wudufillan

Eoržnaflan; aspargi agrestis, eoržnauala

Asparagus, shoot

Eorž, earth

Naflan, navel

Readan, red

Wudu, wild

Cerfillu, chervil

Atriplex hortense
Orach

Adripias

 

 

 

Melde

Meldon

Melde

Meldon

 

Hortense, garden

Bellis perennis
English daisy

 

 

 

 

 Consolida... daeges ege

Daeseag

Consolida... daeges eage

Daegeseage
Deieseien

Daes, day's

Eag, ege, eye

 

Beta vulgaris
Beet

Betas

Betas

 

Betan

Bete

Personiciam... boete

Personicia... bete

Bete

Betan

Betan

Beton

 

Vulgaris, of the masses

Betonica officinalis (Stachys betonica)  Betonica

 

 

 

Betonoica... biscopwyrt

Betonica

Betonicam

Betonican

Betonican

Betonice

Betonie

Betoce

Betonica... biscopwyrt

Bisceopwyrt

Bisceopwyrt

Biscupwyrt

Biscopwyrt

Bradan biscopwyrt

Betonica

Betonoican

Betonica... laesse bisceopwurt

Laesse, lesser

Bisceop, bishop

Wyrt, plant 

Bradan, broad

Brassica napus subsp. rapifera

Rutabaga, swede

 

   

 

Nępas

Tunnęp

Aengliscne nęp

 

Tun, garden

Aengliscne, English

Naep, root crop

Brassica oleracea L. convar. caulorapa

Kohlrabi

 

Caulos

Caulos

 

Caules

Cawel

Brassicam siluaticam... caul

Brassica

Caules

Caulices

Cawel

Bradan cawel

Cawlic

Cawelleaf

Caula magudaris... cawul

Caul

Cawl, cabbage

Bradan, broad

 

Brassica rapa rapifera
Turnip

 

Ravacaulos

   

Bradan cawel

Englise moru

Naep

 

Aenglisene naep

Naep

 

Naep

Cal

Wyld naep

 

Naep, root crop

Englise, Aenglisene, English

Rava, tawny

Bradan, broad

Cal, caul, cawel, cabbage

Moru, root

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Bryonia alba,
Bryony, white

 

 

 

 

 Eowohumelan

 

Eow, female

Humele, hop plant

Buxus sempervivens
Box

      Box  

Boxus

Buxus

Buxus... boxtreow

Treow, tree

Calamintha nepeta

Calamint 

 

 

 

Nepitamon... nepte.. mente orinon

Healfwudu

Nefte

Neftan

 

Hylwyrt

Neptan

 

Harwinta

 

 

Wudu, wild, forest

Healf, half

Hyl, hill
Har,
hare; or hoar, gray

 

Calendula officinalis
Marigold, calendula

Solsequiam

   

Solsequia

Solate... solosece

Solata... solosece

Sigelwearfa

Heliotrophus... uertamnum...

sigelweorfa

Aeliogrophus... sigelhweorfa

Eliotropus... sigilhweorfa

Sigelhweorfan

Sigelhweorfa

Sigelhweorfan, ža smalan unwęscene

Sigelhweorfa

Eliotropiae... sigilhwerue

Solsequium... solsęce

Solsece

Sigel, the sun

Hweorfa, turn, spiral

Smalan, small

Unwęscene, unquenched, unwashed

Sol, the sun

Sequium, follower

Elio, sun

Trop, follower

Cannabis sativum

Hemp

 

 

 

Henep... canuere

Chamepithys... henep

Henep... canuere

Cannane silfatica... henep

Hęnep

Cannaue silfatica... haenep

Haenep

 

 

Cardamine pratensis

Lady’s smock

 

 

 

 

Lustmoce

Lustmocan... crop

Lustmoce...  croppan

Lustmoce... croppihtan

 

 

Lus, plant

Lust, pleasure, delight

Smoc, smock, dress

Crop, cluster of blossoms or berries

 

Carduum sylvaticum

Thistle

 

 

 

Thistel

Wudu thistel

Carduum syluaticum... wudu thistel

Carduus siluaticus... wudu thistel

Scearpan thistel

Wudu thistle

Wuduthistels

Wodethistel

Wudu thistel

Thistel

Wuduthistel

Cardus thistel

Thistel

Thystel

Wodethistel

Scearpan, sharp

Wudu, wild, woods 

Sylvaticum, of the forest

 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Carex

Sedge

 

 

 

 

Hamorwyrt

Homorsecg

Secg

Secges

 

Secg

Carex... seg

Hamor, hammer

Secg, water, reed

Carlina acaulis

Carline thistle

 

 

 

 

Eoforthrote

Eafor throtan

 

Eofor, boar

throtu, throat

Carum carvi

Caraway

Careium

 

 

Cymenes

Cymen

Quimminon... cymen

Quimion... cymen

 

 Cymed

Cymen

Cymene

Cymenes

 Ciminum

Cymen

Carum, dear, costly

Carvi, caroway

Castanea sativa

Chestnut

Castanearios

 

 

Cystel

 Cystel

 

 Cystel... cystbeįm

Castanea, chestnut

Sativa, cultivated, grown

Cyst, chest, coffer, casket

Beam, tree

Centaurea erythraea

Centaury

 

 

 

Centauriam minorem... curmelle seo laessae... febrifugan

Centauria minor... curmelle seo laesse

Eorth gealla... curmelle

Centauria maior... curmelle... eorthgeallan

Eorth gealla... curmelle

Curmelle, feferfuge

Centauria maior... curmelle seo mare

Centaurian

Curmealle, curmeallan

Culmille

Lytlan culmillan

Eorthgeallan, eorthgealla

Eorthgeallan... hyrdewyrt

Centaurian... felterre.. hyrdewyrt... eorthgeallan

Hirdewyrt... eorthgealla

Smalan felterre

Eorthgeallan... hyrdewyrt

Swanewyrt

 

Curmeallan

Eorthgeallan

Felterran... eorthgeallan

Curmeallan

 

Curmelle

Fel terrae, centauria, eorthgealla ...eorthgealle

Fel terrae, centaurea

Eoorthgealla... fel terrae... centauria

Bįnwyrt...  centaurea minor

Fel terrae

Lytlan, little

Laessae, lesser

Eorth, earth

Gealla, gall, having a bitter taste

Hyrde, herder, guard, keeper

Fel, gall, having a bitter taste

Terrae, earth

Mar, major, greater

Centaurea nigra

Knapweed

 

 

 

 

 

Isenhearde, isenhearden

 

isen, iron

hearden, hard

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Chamaemelum nobile

Chamomile

     

Camemelon... mageže

Magethe

Magežan

Mageža

Mageže

Magthan

Magothan

Męgežan

Męgže

Maegežan

Magethan

 

Męge, maiden, May

Chamai, ground, earth

Melon, apple

Chelidonium majus

Celandine

 

 

 

Cyleženie

Celidoniam... cylethenie

Celidonie

Celethonian

Cylethonie

 

Cylethenie

Cilthenige

Cilthenian,

Cellethenian

Cylethenie Cilethenigan Cyleththenigean

 

Celidon, swallow

Cicer arietinum

Chick pea

Cicerum italicum

 

 

Beanum

Beana

Beane

Beana

 

Greate beane

Beana

 Beana

Aries, ram

Cichorium endivia
C.  intybus

Endive
Wild succory

Intubas

 

 

Sigelwearfa

Heliotrophus.. vertamnum... sigelweorfa

Aeliotrophus... sigelhweorfa

 

Sigelhweorfan

Sigelhweorfa

Sigelhweorfan tha smalan

Sigelweorfan

 Sigelhweorfa

 

Sigel, sun

Hweorfa, spiral

Smalan, small

Heliotrophus, sun follower

Vertamnum, turn, change

Cinnamomum
   aromaticum

Cinnamon

 

 

 

 

Cassiam

Ofersǽwisc rind

Sweta wyrta

 Cymen

 

Ofersǽwisc, overseas

Rind, bark

Sweta, sweet

Conium
   maculatum

Hemlock

 

 

 

 

Hemlic

Hymlic

Hymlice

Hymlican

 

Hemlic

 

Convolvulus   
   arvensis

Bindweed

 

 

 

 

Withewinde

Withowindan

 

 

Wic, house, dwelling

Winde, wrap around

Withig, willow

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Convolvulus scammonia

Scammony

 

 

 

 

Scamoniam

Monian

Scamonian

 

 

 

Coriandrum sativum

Cilantro, coriander

Coriandrum

 

 

Celendre Collandrum

Coliandran

Coliandrum

Collandre

Coliandra

Celendre, coliandrum

Celedran

Celendran

Celendre

Celledran

Cellendre

Cellendres

 

Cylendran

Cyllelendran

Cylendran, cyullelendran

Coliandrum

Sativum, cultivated   

Cornus sanguinea

Dogwood

 

 

 

 

Gatetreow

 

Corntreów 

Corn, grain

Gate, gate

Treow, tree 

Corylus avellana

Hazelnut

Avellanarios

Avellanarius

 

Hnutum

Haesel

Haeseles

Haeslenne

Hnuta

Haesel 
Hnutbeames

Corilus, haesel

Haeselhnutu

Hnutbeam

Nux

Hnutu

Nucum

Hnut, nut

Beames, trees 

Crataegus ssp.

Hawthorn

 

 

 

Haegthornes

Haegthorne

Haegthornes

 

Haegthorn

Hagan, gignalia

Haeg, hedge

Crocus sativus, Meadow saffron

Colchicum autumnale
 

     

Croh

Greate wyrt

Hieribulbum,  greate wyrt

Hieribulbus... greate wyrt

Croh

Greate wyrt, greatan wyrt

Hermodactylos...  greįta crįwleįc,  crauleac

 

Hermodactula... tidolosa...  crįwan leįc

Sativus, cultivated

Wyrt, plant

Crawan, crow

Leac, leek, plan

Dactyl, cock's foot

Tidolosa, early

Cucumis sativa

Cucumber

 Cucumere

 

 

Cucumere

Hwerhwette

Cucumerera siluaticum... hwerhwette

Cucumeris siluatica... hwerhwette

Hwerwette

Hwerhwettan

Hwerwe

Hwerhwetta

Hwerhwettan

Hwerhwette

Hwer, a pot

Hwetta, stout, active 

Cuminum
   cyminum

Cumin

Ciminum

Cumino

 

Cymenes

Cymen

Quimminon... cymen

Quiminon... cymen

Cymen

Cymenes

Cymed

Sutherne cymen

Cymen

 

Ciminum

Cymen

  

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Cydonia
   oblonga

Quince

Cotoniarios

Guduniarius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cynara
   cardunculus 

Cardoon

Cardones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cynoglossum officinale

Hound’s tongue

 

 

 

Hundes tunge

Buglossam... bubula... glofwyrt... hundes tunge

Apollinaren... glofwyr

Cynoglossam... ribbe ...linguam canis

Cynoglosa... ribbe

[Cune]glaes

Cynoglosson

Cuneglaesse

Glofwyrt

Hundes tunge

Ribbe, ribban

 

Hundes micgean

Ribbe

 

 

Cyno,cuno, hundes, dog's

Tunge, tongue

Micgean, urine

Cyperus papyrus

Bulrush, papyrus

 

 

 

 

Dythhomar

Hamorwyrt

Homorsecg

 

 

Ae-risc

Duthhamor

Ae, water

Risc, rush

Dyth, fuel

Dythomar, papyrus

Homor, hamor, haammer 

Cytisus scoparius

Broom

 

 

 

Bromes

Brom

Brom

Bromes

 

Genesta brom

Genesta bromb

Bromes, brom, broom


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F.D. Drewitt

 

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