Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants whose names begin with D through G
from these 9th and 10th century sources

Capitulare de Villis

Plan of St. Gall

 

Strabo's Hortulus

Pseudo-Apuleius

Leechbook of Bald

Lacnunga

Aelfric

 

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Plants from D through G

A list of plant names found in these sources, commonly used names in Old English,
and tentative identification by scientific name

Short list of plants cited most frequently in these MSS

 

Scientific name

Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Glossary

Daucus carota

Carrot, parsnip

 

 Carvitas

Pastenacas

Pastenachas

 

Feldmoru

Pastinace siluaticae... feldmoru

Feldmoran

Moru

Englisce moran, moru

Feldemoru, Feldmoran, feldmore

Wylisc moru

Wælwyrte moran

Feldmoran

Pastinaca, wealmora, wealmoru

Croweleac pastinaca

Moru, edible root

Englisce, English

Felde, field

Pastinum, 2-pronged fork; carrot, parsnip

Wylisc, wael, weal, foreign

Wald, wooded upland

Deschampsia caespitosa

Hassock grass

 

 

 

 

Cassuc

 Cassuc

 

 

Dictamnus albus

False dittany

Diptamnum

 

 

 

 

 

 

Digitalis
    purpurea

Foxglove

 

 

 

Foxes glofa

Trycnos manicos... foxes clofa

Trincos... foxes clofe

Glofwyrt

Apollinaren... glofwurt

Buglossam.. bubula... glofwort... hundes tunge

Apollinaris... glofwyrt

Glofwyrt

 

 

Apollinaris, glofwyrt

Glof, glove,clove

Foxes, foxes, folks

Buglossam, cow tongue

Trico, hairy

Manus, hand

 

Dipsacus
   fullonum

Fuller's teasel

 

 

 

Wulfes camb

Chameaeleae... wulfes camb

Camelleon alba... wulfes taesl

Camilleon alba... wulfes taesl

Wulfescamb

Wulfes comb

Wulfes camb

 Wulfes camb

Wulfes, wolf

Camb, comb

Chameaeleae, camelleon, earth lion

Echium vulgare

Viper’s bugloss

 

 

 

 

Haransprecel

Haranaprecel

Haran sprecel

Haran spicle

 

Haran, hare

Sprecel, spicle, speckled

Elymis repens

Couch grass

Quitch grass

 

 

 

Cwice

 

Cwith

Cwice

Cwican

Cith

Cwice

Cwican

Quice

 

Cwice

Cwice, alive

Repens, creeping

Eruca sativa

Arugula

Eruca

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alba, white

Eupatorium cannabinum

Water agrimony

 

 

 

Hindehælețan

Waeterwyrt

Callitricum... waeterwyrt

Gallitricus... waeterwyrt

Hind  heolotha

Hind heolathan

Hindhiolothe

Ealifer

[hind]haelețe

Hindheoloțan

Hindhælețan

Hindhæleța

Hindhælețe

 

Ambrosia... hindheolath

Hind,  below, under, hidden

Haeletha, warrior, hero, superior

Ea, water

Laefer, a rush, reed

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Euphorbia
lathyris

Caper spurge

Lacteridas

 

 

Gyth corn

Lactyridem... githcorn

Lactyrida... githcorn

Titymallos calatites...  lacterida, lacterican

Githcorn

Githcorna

Githcornes

Spring wyrt

Spryngwyrt

Githcorn

Spring, stream

Gith, plant with tiny black seeds

Corn, kernel, grain

Lactus, milky

Titymalos, euphorbia

Vicia faba

Bean, Fava,
   Broadbean

Fabas maiores

 

 

Beanum, beana

Beana

Greate beane

Beana

 Beána

Maiores, major, great

Fagus
Beech

     

 

 

 

Fabus boctreow

Becen

Boc

Boc, book

Treow, tree

Ficus carica

Fig

Ficus

Ficus

 

 

Ficus

 

Ficaeppel

Ficbeam

Ficwyrt

Fictreow

Aeppel, apple

Beam, tree

Wyrt, plant

Treow, tree

Filipendula ulmaria

Meadowsweet

 

 

 

 

Medouyrt

Meodowyrt

Medowyrt

Meodeuyrt

 

Medewyrt

Camicula argentilla

Carnicula argentille

Camiculo argentilla

Camicula argentillae

Camicula argentillae

Medo, mead  

Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel

Fenicolum

Feniclum

Foeniculum

Finule

Finules

Finol

Feniculum... finul

Feniculus... finul

Finul

Finoles

Finol

Finuglan

Finules

Finol

Finul

Finules

Finoles

 

Feniculum finel

Feniculum fenol

Feniculum finul

 

Fragaria vesca
Strawberry

 

 

 

Streowberian

Fraga... streawbergean

Strreaberge

Streawberian

Strewawbergean

 

Streawbergean

Streawberian

Streawberian nythweard

 

 

Fragra... streowberjan

Fraga streawberjan

Streaberig

Streawberianwisan

Streaw, straw

Berian, bergian, berig, berry

Wisan, runner, sprout

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Frangula alnus

Buckthorn, alder

 

 

 

 

Alore

Aleres

Alres

Fulbeam

Spracen Fulanbeames

Fulan

 

Alnus alrr

Alnus olrr

Alnus alr

Ful, foul

Beam, tree

Spraec, a twig or shoot

Fraxinus
Ash

     

 

Aesc

Aesces

Aescrinde

Aescrinda

Aescrinde

Fraxinus aesc

Aesc, ash tree

Rinde, rinda - bark

Galium aparine
Lesser Burdock

 

 

 

Philanthropos... clate

Fhylantropos... clate

Clifan

Hegeclif,

hegecliffe,

hegeclifan

Hegecliue

Hegerifan,

hegerife,

hegrifan

Smalan clatan

Clatan

Clate

Smaele clifan

Smalan clifan

Smalan clatan

Clate

Clatan

Hegecliffe

Hedgeclifan

Hegecliue

Hegerifan

Smalan clițwyrt

Lancg  cliton

Philanthropos... clate

Clate, clot

Clife,clith cleave, adhere

Hege, hedge

Rife, abundant

Smalan, small

Philanthropos, human-loving

Galium odoratum

Woodruff

 

 

 

Wudu rofe

Astularegia... wudurofe

Wuduhrofe

Malochinagria... astularegia... wudurofe

Wudurofan

Wudurifan

 

Wuduroue

Wudurofe

Wuduhrofan

 

 

Wudurofe

Wudu, forest, wild

Rofan, abundant

Genista tinctoria
Dyer’s greenweed

 

 

 

 

Wuduweaxe

Wuduweaxan

Wuduweax

Wuduweaxan

Weoduweaxan

 weoduweaxe

 

Wudu, forest, wild

Weaxe, grow

Gentiana campestris
Field gentian

 

 

 

Feldwyrt

Gentianam... feldwyrt

Gentiana... feldwyrt

Holancaersan

Holecersan

Feldwyrt

Ferdwyrt

 

 

Hol, covered

Caerse, cress

Feld, field

Gentiana
   pneumonanthe
Marsh gentian

 

 

 

 

Meargealla

Mergealla

Mergelle

Merscmear-  
   geallan

Mergelle

Merscmergyllan

 

Brun, brown

Mersc, marsh

Mear, mere

Geallan, gall

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Geum urbanum
Avens

 

 

 

 

 

Benedicte

 

Benedicte, blessing

Glechoma
   hederacea

Alehoof
Ground ivy

 

 

 

Eorth yfig

Hederan nigran ... eorthifig

Brune hofe

Hofe, hofan

Mersc hofe

Readan hofe

Eorthifig

Tun hofe

Eorthifies

Eorthiui

Ifigcroppan

Ifig croppena

Hofe

Eorthifig

Reade hofe

Ifigcroppas

Hofe 

Hofe, hoof, from the leaf shape

Merse, marsh

Readan, red

Eorth, earth

Ifig, ivy


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