Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants whose names begin with H through L
from these 9th and 10th century sources:

Capitulare de Villis

Plan of St. Gall

 

Strabo's Hortulus

Pseudo-Apuleius

Leechbook of Bald

Lacnunga

Aelfric

 

 

All plants:

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Plants from H through L

A list of plant names found in these sources, commonly used names in Old English,
and tentative identification by scientific name

Short list of plants cited most frequently in these MSS

 

Scientific name

Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Glossary

Helleborus niger
Black hellebor

 

Elleborus - wedeberge lfone, ceasterwyrt

 

 

 

Lungenwyrt

Tunsincgwyrt Wedeberge 

Ceasteraesces

Ceasterwyrt

Hamerwyrt

Hamorwyrt

Ceasterwyrte

Possubly thung, thunge, miclan thung

Ceaster

Ceasteraesc

Possibly hamorwyrte,  hamorwyrt

 

Ceaster, fortress

Aesc, ash,  spear

Thung, poison

Miclan, great

Tunsing, shining

Wede, madness

Hieracium
Hawkweed

 

 

 

 

Hafocwyrt

 

 

Hafoc, hawk

Humulus lupulus
Hop

 

 

 

Hymele

Politricium... hymele

Bryonia... hymele

Hymele

Humele

Eowohumele

Lungenwyrt

Hedehymele

Hymelan

 

Hymele, hops

Eowo, ewe (female)

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Hyoscamus niger

Henbane

 

 

 

Symphoniacam... belone... henebelle

Henne belle

Belene

Beolenan, beolone, belenan

Haennebellan

beolonan... hennebelle

Belenan, belone

Beolonan... haennebelle

Simphoniaca, hennebelle

Henne, hen

Hyssopus ssp.

Hyssop

 

 

 

Hysopan

Ysopan, ysopon

Isopo

Ysopo

Ysopum

Isopo

 

  

Ilex aquifolium 

Holly

 

 

 

 

Holen

Holegn

 Holen

Ulcia holi

Holen

Holen, holly

Inula campana

I. helenium

Elecampane

 

 

 

Sperewyrt

Hinnula campana... sperewyrte

 

Elene,

Elenan

Eolone

Elene

Eolenan

Byrigeolonan

Ehheolothe

Heahheolothe,

heahheolothan

Hiolothan

Elenenan

Eolonon

Eolonan

Elene

Elenan

Haelethe

Horselenan

Sperewyrt

Waelwyrt

Helena,

horselne

Oriebanum,

hors elene

Sperewyrt

 

Elene, helena

Byrig, city

Heah, high

Heolotha, warrior

Hors, horse

Oriebanum, raises up

Spere, spear

Wealh, Welsh, foreign

Inula conyza

Plowman’s spikenard

 

 

 

 

Theorwyrt

Thyorwyrt

 

 

Theor, thyor, plowman

Wyrt, plant

Iris florentina

Iris, fleur de luce

 

 

 

 

Uane

Fanan

Fan[e]

Citsona... Fana

Gitsana... Faen

Citsana... Fanu

Citsona... Fanu

Gitsana... faern

Fana, standard, flag 

Iris germanica

  Purple flag

Iris pseudacorus

  Yellow flag

 

Gladiolum

Gladiola

Gladiola

Glaedene

Bulbiscillitici... glaedene

Gladiolum... glaedene

Bulbiscillatica... glaedene

Glaedenan

Glaedenon

Sperewyrt

Glaedenan

Glaedene

Glaedenan

Glaedenon

Glaedene

Glaed, shining, bright

Glad, sword

Spere, spear

Isatis tinctoria

Woad

 

 

 

Isatis... alutam... serpentis

 

Wade

Wad

Wades

Wurman

 Weod[obend]e

Sandix... wad

Sandix wod

Wad... fucus

Wad, woad

Wurme, dye plant (after a shell fish that produces a purple dye)

Fucus, seaweed

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Juglans

Walnut

Nucarios

Nugarius

 

 

Hnuta

Hnutena

Hnutbeames 

 Hnutbeames

Hnutu juglantis... nux

Hnutu... nucum

Hnutu, nut

Nux, nut

Wealh, foreign

Juncus

Rush

 

 

 

 

Risca

 

Ae-risc

Iuncus... scirpus... rixs

Iuncus... scyrups... resce

Iuncus... scirpus... risc

Ea, water

Risc, resc, rush

 

Juniperus sabina

Savine juniper

Savinam

 

 

Sauine

Sabinam... sauinam

Sabina... safinae

 

Safinan

Safine

Safinan

Sabinam... sauinam

Sauinan

Sauine

Safine

Sauinan

Safinan

Safenan

Sauine

Sabina safene

Sabina saeuine

Sabina sauine

Sabina sauene

 Sabina, juniper 

Kaempferia rotunda

Zedoary

 

 

 

 

Sideware

Sidewaran

 

From Arabic Zedwar

Lactuca sativa, L.  virosa

Lettuce

Lactucas

Lactuca

 

Lactucam leporinam... lactucam

Lactuca leporina... lactuca

Wudulectric

Lactucam silfaticam... wudu lectric

Lactuca siluatica... wudu lecdtric

Lactucas

Leahtric

Lactucas... leahtric

Lactucan

Lactucam silvaticam, wudulehtric

Wudulehtric

Sarrabum... wilde lactuce

Lactuca, milky

Wudu, wild, forest

Leporina, hare

Silvaticum, of the woods, wild

Lagenaria siceraria

Gourd

Cucurbitas

 

Cucurbita

 

Cyrfaettan

Cyrfaette

Cucurbitan

Curfet

 

Cyrfaet... cucurbita

Cu, from GK kukuos, wandering

Faet, cup

Lamium alba
Dead nettle

 

 

 

Netelan

Netele

Netle

Netelan

Netlan

Netle

Blinde netle

Netelan

Netele

Archangelica... blinde netle

Blinde netele

Blinde, stingless

Angel, messenger

Arch, high, superior

Lamium purpureum

Red nettle

 

 

 

 

Readan netlan

Reade netelan

Reade netlan

Reade netle

Readre netelan

 

Readan netelan

Reade netlan

Reade Netele

 

 

 

Reade, red 

Laserpitii siler

Laserwort

 

Silum

 

 

 

 

 

Laurus nobilis

Bay laurel

Lauros

Lauros

 

Lawer treow

Laures

Laurtreowes

Lawertreowe

Lauberge

Lawerbergean

Lawerberian

 

Laurbeam... daphnis.. laurus

Laurus, lawerbeam

Laurus, lauwerbeam

Beam, tree

Berge, berry

Daphnis, from Daphne, a nymph turned into a tree

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Lens culinaris

Lentils

 

 

 

 

Lenticulas

 

 

 

Leontodon  taraxacum, AKA Taraxacum officinale

Dandelion

 

 

 

 

Aegwyrt

Aegwyrt

 

Aeg, eag, egg

Lepidium sativum

Garden cress

 

 

 

 

Cresco... cherse

Cersan

Leac cersan

Leaccerse

Tunkerse

Cyrse

Cresco caerse

Hare, hare

Wyrt, plant

Tun, garden

Kerse, cress

Levisticum officinale

Lovage

Levisticum

Lubestico

Lybisticum

 

Lubastican

Lufestice

Luuestices

Lufestice

Lubastican

Lufestice

Lufestices

Leuastica

Libestica... Lufestice

Libestica... Lufestica, lufestice

Lubestica... conixe

Lufe, affection

Lilium

Lily

Lilium

Lilium

Lilum

 

Lilian

Liliae

Lilie... lilium

Lilium... lilie

Lilian

Lilie

 

Lilige

Lilian

 

Lilium lilige

Lilium lilje

Lilium, lily

Limonium

Statice

 

 

 

 

Staethwyrt

 

Staeth

Staeth, water's edge

Linum

Flax

 

 

 

Linenan

Linenne

Linenum

Linhaewenne

Lilnsaed

Linwyrt

Linsaed

 

 

Saed, seed

Wyrt, plant

Lonicera periclymenum

Honeysuckle,   
   Woodbind

 

 

 

Wudubend

Capparis... wudubend

Capparis ... wudu bend

Weothobend

Wudubindan

Wudubindels

Wudubindes

Wudubinden

Weod[obend]e

Wudubindan

Wudubinde

Wudu, wood 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Lupinus alba

Lupin

 

 

 

Elehtran

Ealhtran

Ealhtre

Elehtran

Elehtre

Elehtran

Ealhtran

 

Electrum lehtre

Electrum electre

Electre elehtre

Electra, amber, or an alloy of gold and silver

Lychnis flos cuculi

Ragged robin

 

 

 

 

Bulot

Bulut

 

 

 

Lycopodium clavatum

Club moss

 

 

 

 

Straelwyrt

 

 

Strael, dart, arrow shaft

Wyrt, plant


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it is well to have lived, and to have seen the everlasting beauty of the world.
F.D. Drewitt

 

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