Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants whose names begin with M through Q
from these 9th and 10th century sources

Capitulare de Villis

Plan of St. Gall

 

Strabo's Hortulus

Pseudo-Apuleius

Leechbook of Bald

Lacnunga

Aelfric

 

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Plants from M through Q

A list of plant names found in these sources, commonly used names in Old English,
and tentative identification by scientific name

Short list of plants cited most frequently in these MSS

 

Scientific name

Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Glossary

Malus domestica

Apple

Malorum

 

 

Aeples

Aeppel

Aepples

 

Wudu aepla

Aeples

Aeppla

Aeppel

Aeppelcyn

Apuldrsurmelrc

Apuldor, apuldre

Sweglesaeppel

Swegles aeppel

Wudusuraeppel

Apoldrinde

Wergule

Surmelst apulder

Malus aep

Swite apulder

Surmelst apulder

Apeldre

Swegles aeppel

Aeppeltun

Aeppeltune

Apuldre... malus

Aeppel... pomum

 

Apuldre, apple tree

Rinde, bark

Wudu, wild, forest

Surmelrc, soursweet

Swegle, shining, bright

Swite, sweet

Tun, garden, orchard

Malva sylvestris
Mallow

Malvas

 

 

Hocleaf

Maluae erraticae... hocleaf

Malfa erratica... hocleaf

 

Cottuc

Hocleaf

Hocces leaf

Hocces moran

Mealwan

Mealwe

Geormenleaf

Georman leaf

Wildre mealwan

Hoc

Hocl[ea]f

Malwe

Malva hoc

Malua hocleaf

Malfa hocleaf

Malua crispa...  Simaeringcwyrt

Malua crispa... siniaeringwyft

Malua crispa... symeringcwyrt

Hoc, Gaelic,  mallow

Geormen, mallow

Mandragora

 

 

 

 

 

Eorthaeppel... mandragora

Eorth, earth

Aeppel, apple

Marrubium vulgare

Horehound

 

 

Marrubium

Harhune

Prassion... marrubium... harehune

Haere hunan

Prassion... hare hune

haran hunan

Marubian... harenune

Haranhunan

Marubie

Marubian

Hwite hare hunan

Hunan

 

Haran hunan

Marubian... harenune

Marubian

Marufian

 

Marubium horhune

Marrubium harhune... prassium

Marrubia harun

Marubio harehune vel [...] roil

 

Hune, plant

Har, hoar, gray

Saed, seed  

Hwit, white

Melissa officinalis

Balm

     

 

 

 

Acantan, beowirt

 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Mentha ssp.

Mint

Mentam

Menta

Menta

Mentam... mintan

Minte

Menta... minte

 

Mintan

Minte

Tunmintan

Tunminte

Wildre mintan

Mintan

Tunmintan

Tunminte

Mente... minte

Tun, garden 

Mentha aquaticae

Water mint

 Sisimbrium

Sisimbrium

 

Brocminte

Sisimbrium... brocminte

Saeminte

Brocminte

Fenminte

 

Brocminte

Fenminta

Minte

Athee, Seominte

Sae, seo, sea

Broc, brook

Mentha longifolia

Spearmint

 

 

 

Horsminte

Horsminte

Horsmint

Mintan

 

 

Mentha pulegium

Pennyroyal

Peledium

Pulegium

Puleium

Dweorge dweosle

Pollegion... dweroge dwosle

Dweorge dwoslan

Dweorge dwosle

 

Dweorgedwostlan

Dweorgedwostle

Dweorgedwostlan

Pollegia hylwyrt ...dweorgedwesle

Pollegia hylwyrt ... dwyrgedwysle;

Pollegia hulwyrt

Dweorge- dwoslan

Dweorgedwosle

Dweorgedwostlan

Hylwyrt

Hylwort... dweorgedwosl

Pollegia... hylwyrt

Pollegi dwurgedwesle

Pollegia hylwyrt...  dweorgedwysle

Pollegia hylwyrt... dwerogedwesle

Dweorge, dwarf

Dwosle, mislead, confuse

Hyl, hael, healthy

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Menyanthes trifoliata

Bogbean,

Buckbean

 

 

 

 

Ramgalla

Ramgealla

Ramgeallan

Hromgeallan

 

 

Hram, ram
Gealla, gall 
 

Mespilus germanica

Medlar

Mespilarios

Mispolarius

 

 

Aepeningas

 

Mespila... openaers

Aepeninga, open

Morus nigra

Black Mulberry

Morarios

Murarius

 

 

Byrigbergena

Byrigeolonan

Byrig

 

Murus... morbeam

Morus... morbeam

Mor, from Greek, mulberry, blackberry

Byrig, berge, berry

Beam, tree

Myrica gale

Sweet gale, bog myrtle

 

 

 

Wyrtriwes

Wirrinde

Wyrrind

Gagel

Gagellan

Gagille

Gagolian

Wir

Wirrinde

Wyrtreowes

Gagel

Gageles

Wyir

 Mirica... haeth

 

Myrrhis odorata

Sweet Cicely

 

 

 

Myrre

Murra

Myrran

Murre

Murran

Myrran

 

Murra, myrrh

Narcissus ssp.

Narcissus

 

 

 

Hals wyrt

Narcissum... halswyrt

Narcisus... halswyrt

Bulbum... halswyrt

 

Healswyrt

Epicurrum... Halswyrt

Epicurium...

halswyrt

Haels, hals, neck

Nasturtium 
   officinale

Water cress

Nasturtium

 

 

Nasturcium... caerse

Caerse

Caersan

Wylle caersan

Nasturtium... caerse

Leac cerse

Fencersan

Cersan

Broc cersan

Eacersan

Holancersan

Holecersan

Cyrse

Cresco... caerse

Kerse

Broc, brook

Ea, water

Fen, marsh
Leac, leek. plant

Cerse, kerse, cress

Tun, garden

Wylle, well, spring

Nepeta cataria

Catnip, cat mint

Neptam

 

Neptam

Nepeta

Nepitamon... nepte... orinon

Nepte

Nepitamon... nepte

Neftan

Nefte

Neptan

Nepitamon... nepte... orinon

Nefte

Neftan

Neptan

Nepita nefte

Nepte

Cat, cat

Nepte, from nepita, catnip; or from nepenthe, comfort, sooth

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Nigella sativa
Love-in-a-mist

 

Git

 

 

Gitte... sutherne wyrt

 

 

Gitte, gith, a plant with small black seeds

Nymphaea spp.

Water lily

 

 

 

Collloncroh

Fleathan wyrt

Fleothanwyrte

Fleathor-wyrt... nimpha

 Eadocce

 Achillea, coloncroh

Ea, water

Fleot, fleet, a place where vessels moor

Ocimum basilicum

Basil

 

 

 

Ocimum

Viperina... naedre wyrt

Naedderwyrt

Basilisca... naedderwyrt

Brassica ... naedderwyrt

Naedrewyrt

Vipernam.. naedderwyrt

Ocimum... mistel

Mistel

Ocimus... mistel

Naederwyrt

Eorthmistel

 

 Naedderwyrt... hlaedderwyrt

 

Basilisca, king

Eorth, earth

Mistel, mistletoe

Naedder, snake, adder

Vipernam, of snakes

Ocimum, basil

Olea europaea

Olive

 

 

 

Ele

 

Elebeam

Eleberge

Oleastrum... wilde elebeam

Hele lefes

Ele

Olea, olina, elebeam

Olea, Oliua, elebeam

Elebeamas

Oleum ele

Ele, hele, oil

Beam, tree

Berge, berry

Oliua, olive

Leafes, lefes, leaves

Wilde, wild

Origanum vulgare

Marjoram

 

 

 

Organe

Serpillum... organe

Serpillus... organa

Origanum... organan

Feltwurma

Origanum... organan

Hylwyrt

Wyrmel[lan] 

Warmelle

Organum... organe

Felt, field?

Organe, serpilla, marjoram

Hyl, hill

Wyrm, worm, snake, or to creep like a snake

 

Oxalis acetellosa

Wood sorrel

 

 

 

 

Geaces sure

Geaces suran

Geaces suran 

 

Geaces, cuckoo

Sure, sour

Paeonia spp.
Peony

     

Peonia

Peonian

Peoniam

Peonian

 

Pionia, pionie

Paion, a Gk physician

Panicum crus galli

Cock's spur grass

Fumaria

Fumitory

 

 

 

 

Attorlathan

Attorlathe

Aterlathe

Attorlathe

Attorlathan

 Atterlathe... venenifuga

Attor, adder, snake

Fuga, drive into flight

Lathe, loathe, hate

Venin, venom

Panicum crus galli

Cock’s spur grass

 

 

 

 

Attorlathe

Attorlathe

 

Attor, adder, snake

Lathe, loathe, hate

Papaver somniferum

Opium poppy

Papaver

Magones

Papaver

Popig

Moecorias... papuer album...hwit popig

Metoria... hwit popig

Popig... moecorias... papauer album... hwit popig

Sutherne popig

 

Papig... papaver

Wildpopig

Papauer... papi

Papuer... popig

Papuer... popi

Papauer... papig

Alba, white

Hwit, white

Moecorias, from mecon roeas, red poppy

 

Parietaria officinalis

Pelliitory

 

 

 

Dolhrune

Perdicalis... dolhrune

Dohlrunan

Dohlrune

Dolgrunan

Hamorwyrt... perdicalis

Dolhrune

Dohlrunan

 

Dohl, wound

Hrune, charm

Hamor, covering

Perdicalis, from perdix, partridge

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Peganum harmala

Wild or field rue

 

 

 

 

Armelu

 

 

 

Petroselinum
   crispum

Parsley

Petresilinum

Petroselium

 

Peter silie

Triannem... petroselinum... petersilie

Petresilige

Petersylian

Petroselinum... petersilie

Petersilian

Petersilie... petroselinum

Petresilige

Petorsilian

Sigsonte

 

Petresilige

Petersylian

Apiium, merce

Petrocilinum... petersylige

Sigsonte... stanmerce

Peter, rock

Selinon, celery

Stan, stone

Merce, parsley-like plant

Sigsonte, stone parsley

Peucedanum officinae

Cow parsley, Kex, Hog fennel

 

 

 

Cammoc

Peucedanum... cammoc

Peucedana... cammoc

Cammoc

Cammuc

Camecon

Camecon

Commuces

Cammuces

Cummuc

 

Cambuc, hooked stick, shepherd's staff

Phragmites

Reed

 

 

 

 

Hreode

Hreod

Hreodes 

 

Calamus... canna... arundo... hreod

Arundo, reed

Hreod, reed

Pimpinella anisum

Aniseseed, 
pimpernel

Anesum

 

 

 

Suthernan finuglan 

 

 

Finuglan, fennel

Pimpinella spp., Burnet saxiffrage

 

 

 

 

Pipeneale

 

Pipen, from piper, pepper 

Pinus pinea

Stone pine

Pinos

 

 

Pintrywenum hnutum

Pinhnyte

 

 

Pin, pine

Hnyte, nut

Piper nigrum

Pepper

 

 

 

Pipere

Pipore

Pipor

Pipercorn

Pipercorna

Pipor

Piperes

Pipra

Blacum pipore

Pipocorn

Piporcorna

Pipera

Piporcor

Pipercorn

Piporcorn

Piper

Pipor

Piper, spice, pepper

Pisum sativum

Pea, garden

Pisos mauriscos

 

Pysena

Pysna

 

Pisan

Pysena

Pisan

Pysan

Pysum

Pyosan

 Pys[an]

 

Maurisco, from the sea  (mar)

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Plantago
   maior

Plantain

 

 

 

Arniglosa.... wegbraed

Wegbraede

Wegbraedan

 

Wegbraede

Wegbraedan

Smethan wegbraedan

Ruwan wegbraedan

Ruwe wegbraede

Wegbrade, wyrta modor

Wegbraeden

Arnaglossa, wegbrade

Plantago waegbraede

Plantago wegbraede

Arniglossa, plantain

Braede, broad

Laec, healing

Modor, mother

Ribbe, ribbed

Ruwe, rough

Smethan, smooth

Weg, way

Wyrt, plant

Polemonium caeruleum

Jacob’s ladder

or Polygonatum multiflorum Solomon's seal

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hlaedderwyrt

 

Hlaed, ladder

Polypodium vulgare

Everfern

 

 

 

Radiola ... eforfearn

Radiolum... eforfearn

Eforfearn

Filicem... fearn

Eoforfearn

Eoforfearnes

Eoforfearnes

Eoforfearn

Eoforfearnes

 

Eferfern

Filex fearn

Eofor, boar

Radiolus, little sunbeam

Populus tremula
Aspen

     

 

Aeps

Aepsan

 

Abies... Aeps

Aeps, aspen, fir tree

Potentilla anserina

Silverweed

 

 

 

 

Gelodwyrt

Mare

Gelodwyrt

 

 

Gelod, backbone, from the pattern of the leaves

Mor, moorland

Wyrt, plant

Potentilla reptans

Cinquefoil

 

 

 

Quinque folia ... fifleafe

Quinquefolium... fifleafe

Fifleafan

 

 

Eorthrima

Fifleafe

Fifleafan

V leafan

Fifleafe

Fifleafan

[Fif]leafan

Quinquefolium... Fifleafe

Eorth, earth

Rima, rim, strap, binder

Fifleaf, five leaf

Quinque, five

Folia, leaf

Primula eliator

Oxlip

 

 

 

 

Oxanslyppe

Oxenslyppan

Oxnalid

Oxnalib

Oxna, ox

Lib, lip

Primula veris

Cowslip

 

 

 

Haewen hydele ...Brittanice... haewen hydele

Haewene hnydele

Cuslyppan

 

Cuslyppan

Haewen hnydele

Haewene hnydelan

Cusloppe... britannica

Brittanice, of Britain

Cu, cow

Lyppe, lip

Haewen - blue, green, purple

Hydele, hnydele, cushion?

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Prunus cerasus
Cherry

Ceresarios

 

 

 

 

Cyrsetreow

Cyrse, cherry

Treow, tree

Prunus domestica

Plum

Prunarios

Prunarius

 

 

Plumbleda

Plumsewes

 

Plume ... hoc prunum

Plumae prunus.... plumum Plumtreow... prunus

Plumtreu plunas

Prunas plumtreow

Treow, tree

Bleda, leaf

Sewes, juice

Prunus dulcis

Almond

Amandalarios

Amendalarius

 

Amigdales

Amidgales

 

Amigdala... nutida

Magdalatreow 

Magadala, amygdala, almond

Treow, tree

Prunus persicus

Peach

Persicarios

 

Persicus

 

 

Persucas

Persoces

Persoces

Persoctreow

Persoc, pear

Treow, tree

Prunus spinosa

Sloe thorn, Black
   thorn

 

 

 

 

Slah

Slathorn

Slahthornrage

Slahrinde

 

Plumsla

Slah, blue-black

Rage, moss

Rinde, bark

Pyrus

Pear

Pirarios

 

 

 

Peran

 

Pirus pyrige

Pirige

Pira, pear

Quercus spp.
Oak

     

 

Ace

Ac

Acleaf

Actanas

Acrinde

Quercus... ilex... ac

Aecern

Ac, oak

Tanas, twig


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F.D. Drewitt

 

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