Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants whose names begin with R through T
from these 9th and 10th century sources

Capitulare de Villis

Plan of St. Gall

 

Strabo's Hortulus

Pseudo-Apuleius

Leechbook of Bald

Lacnunga

Aelfric

 

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Plants from R through T


A list of plant names found in these sources, commonly used names in Old English,
and tentative identification by scientific name

Short list of plants cited most frequently in these MSS

 

Scientific name

Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Glossary

Ranunculus verna, AKA R. ficaria

Lesser celandine,

Crowfoot

 

 

 

Cylethonie

Celidoniam... cylethenie

Cyledonie

Caelidonia... cylethinie

Hraefnes fot

Hrefnes fot

Cluhfiht wenwyrt

Clufetan wenwyrte

Clufihte wenwyrt

Clufehte wenwyrt

Cneoeht wenwyrt

Wenwyrt tha clifihtan

Clufytan wenwyrt

Clufthung

Wenwyrt

Wenwyrte

Hrefnes fot

Wenwyrta

Cithenige

Celthenian

Cellephenian

Cylethenie

Cilethenigan

Cylethienigan

cylle[th]en[i]an

Celethonian

Celethonie

Ciledthonian

Hraemnes fot

Hraefnes fot

Clufete wenwyrt

Clufehton wenwyrt

Clifthung

 

Cluf, cluh, clove, bulb, tuber

Cneo, cneoehte, knotted

Wen, impetigo

Thung, poisonous plant

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Ranunculus
   scleratus

Celery-leaf
   buttercup

 

 

 

Scelerata... clufthung

Clufthungan

Clufthunge

Scleratam... clufthunge

Hrefnesfot

Clufthung

 

Hraefnes fot

Clufthung

Clofthung

 Hremmesfot

Hrefen, raven

Fot, foot

  

Raphanus sativus

Radish

Radices

Radices

Rafanum

 

 

Antran

Ontre

Ontran

Raedice

Redic

Raedic

Raedices

Hraedic

Ontre

Ontran

Raedic

Sutherne raedic

Hraedic

Rafanum raedic

Raedic, root

Rhamnus
   cathartica

Buckthorn

 

 

 

 

Thefethorn

Thefan, thorn

thefanthorn

thefothorne

Heorotbrembel

Heorot-brenibelleaf

Thefethorn

Thifethorn

Ramnus bremelas

Thefe, thicket

Heorot, stag

Brembel, bramble

Rosa spp

Rose

Rosa

Rosas

Rosa

 

Rosan

Rosan

Wudurosan

Rosenan

Heopbremles

Rosan

Rose

Rosenan

Rosa, rosa

Brer, briar

Wudu, wild, wood

Heope, hip

Brymel, bramble

Beddum, bed

Reade, red 

Rosa canina

Dog rose

 

 

 

 

Brer... the  hiopan on weaxath

Heopbremles

 

 

 

Rosmarinus
   officinalis

Rosemary

Ros marinum

Rosmarino

 

Rosmarinum...  bošen

Bothen

Bothene

Bogen

Bothenes

 Bothen

Lolium, bothen

 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Rubia tinctorum

Madder

Warentiam

 

 

Maedere

Maederu

Gryas, mędere

Mędere

Wratte

Wraettes 

Maeddre... vermiculi, rubia

Anchorum... maeder

Wraette, red

Rubus fruticosa

Blackberry

 

 

 

Herba rubus...  brémel

Brembel... Bremel

Braembel

Brer

Brembelleaf

Brembelaeppel

Brembel aeppel

Brembelaeppe

Blaco bergean

Braemel berian

Brer

Braembelleaf

Braemelberian

Blaceberian

Brémlas vepres

Brembel, bramble

Aeppel, apple

Brer, briar

Blaco, black

Bergean, berry 

Rubus idaeus

Raspberry

 

 

 

 

Hindbergean

Hindberge, ermigio

Heorotcrop

Hind brer

Hind berige

Hind brer

Acimus, hyndberige

Hind, female of hart, doe

Heorot, hart

Crop, cluster, umbel

Berr, bergean, berige, berry

Rumex acetosa

Sorrel, Dock

 

 

 

Wudu docce

Lapatium... wudu docce

Doccae

Lapatium... doccae

Lapatium... docce

Doccoe

Doccan

Ompre

Omopran

Docce

Sure

Suran

Doccan

Ampre

Ampron

Ompran

Docce

Ompre

Doccan

Docce

Dilla docca 

Sure, suran, sour

Docc, a plant, dock

 

Rumex obtusifolius

Curly dock

 

 

 

Docce

Doccoe

Fealwe dock

 

 

Fealwe, pale, yellow 

Rumex sanguineus

Red sorrel

 

 

 

 

Reade doccan

 

 

Docce, dock

Reade, red

Ruscus aculeatus Butcher's broom

 

 

 

 

Cneówholen, victoriola

Cneowholen

Uctoriole... cneowholen

Uictoriola... cneowholen

Cneówholen Cneoholan

Cneowholen

 

Cneo, knee

Holen, holly

Ruta graveolens

Rue

Rutam

Ruta

Ruta

Rudan

Rude

Rutam... rudan

Rude

Rutam... Siluatican

Rutam montanam... rudam

rute siluatice

rutam montanam

Rude

Ruta

Rudan

 

Rudan

Rude

 

Ruta... Rude

 

Salix

Willow

 

 

 

 

Sealh

Withig

Withies

Weliges

Welies

Seales

Weliges

Withig salix

Withig, withy, willow

Reade, red

Seales, sally, willow

Salvia officinalis

Sage

Salviam

Saluia

Salvia

Salfian

Saluie

Saluian

Salfia

Salfige

Sealuian

Saluia

Saluian

Saluie

 

Saluian

Saluia salfie

Saluia saluige

Saluia saluje

Salve, be safe

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Salvia sclarea

Clary sage

Sclareiam

 

Sclarege

 

Slarie

Salfige

Salfian

Saluian

Sealuian

Slarige

Slarian

Slarige, slarian

Slaregia slarege

  

Sambucus ebula

Dwarf elder

 

 

 

Ebŭlum, ellenwyrte, wealwyrt

Waelwyrt... ellenwyrt

Ebulum... ellenwyrt... wealwyrt

Ebulus... wealwyrt

Lithwyrt

Wealwryt

Wealwyrte

Walwyrt, ellenwyrt Węlwyrt vel ellenwyrt

Leothowyrt

Lithwyrt

Waelwyrt

Eofolan

Waelwyrt

 

Lith, lithe, soft

Weal, wael, wall or foreign

Ellen, elder tree

Sambucus nigra

Elder

 

 

 

Ellenvyrt

Waelwyrt... ellenwyrt

Ebullum... elenwyrte... wealwyrt

Ellen

Samsuchon... ellen

Ellen,  ellenne, ellenahsan

Ellenes

Ellen

Elnea

Ellenes, ellen, elnea

Ellenes

Sambuca, saxonice

Ellenahsan, ellen asce, elder ashes

Saponaria officinalis

Soapwort

 

 

 

 

Leįžorwyrt

 

 

Laether, lather  

Satureia hortensis

Savory, summer

Satureiam

Saturegia

 

 

Saetherian

Saewerie

Sutherige, satirion

Sęžerian

Saturege

Saethrian

Sutherige

 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Saxifraga
   granulata

Saxifrage

 

 

 

Sundcorn

Saxifragam... sundcorn

Saxifragiam... sundcorn

Sundcorn, saxifragam

Moldcorn,  vulnetrum

Sundcornes

Sundcorn

Moldcorn

Saxifragia sundcorn

Saxifraga suntcorn

Saxifriga sundcorn

Sund, swimming, watery

Mold, in the earth 

Scilla  maritime, AKA Urginea maritime

Sea squill

Squillam

 

 

Bulbi scillitici... glaedene

Glaedene

Gladiolum... glaedene

Bulbiscillatica... glaedene

Glaedenan

Glaedenan

Glaedene 

Glaedenon

Glaedenan 

 

 

Scrofularia
   aquatica

Water betony

 

 

 

Brunewyrt

Splennion.. teucrion... brunewyrt

Splenion... brunewyrt

Brunwyrt

Brune wyrt

Brune bisceopwyrt

Brunwyrt

Brunewyrt

 

Brun, brown, dusky

Sedum acre

Sedum

 

 

 

 

Stancrop

Wyrmwyrt

Stancrop

Stancroppes

 

Stan, stone

Crop, cluster

Wyrm, warm 

Sempervivum
   tectorum

Houseleek, Aloe

Iovis barbam

 

 

Sinfulle

Sinfullan

Semperuiuum... sinfulle

Semperuiuus ... sinfulle

Syngrene

Temolum... singrene

Temolus... singrene

Hamwyrt

Hamwyrte

Sinfulle

Singrene

Alwan

Thunorwyrt

Synfullan

Miclan sinfullan

Singrene

Singrenan

Singrenan

Hamwyrte

Hamwyrt

Singrenan

 

Ham, home

Sin, semper, always

Grene, green

Fulle, filled, complete

Aluwan, aloe

Thunor, thunder  

Wyrt, plant

Senecio vulgaris

Groundsel

 

 

 

Senecio... grunde swilige

Grunde swylige

Grunde-
   swylige

Selfaete

Aetan

Ete

Grundeswelgean

Grundeswylgean

Grundeswelge

Grundeswylie

Grundeswylige

Grundeswulie

Sinitia Grundswylige

Simitia grundeswulie

Sinitia grundeswelige 

Grund, ground

Swylige, swallower

Selfaete, wild oat?

Sinapis arvensis
Mustard

 Sinape

 

 

Cedelc

Mercurialis... cedelc 

Cerlices

Efelastan

Efelaste

Senep

Sinope

Senepes

 Efenlastan

 Senep

 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Smyrnium olusatrum

Alexanders

 

 

 

 

Crecisc attrum

Alexandrian

Alexandria

Alexandre

Alexandran

Alexandrian

Alehsandrie

 

 

 

Solanum ssp. 

Nightshade

 

 

 

Attorlathe

Aelfthone

Aelfthonan

Myxenplante

Attorlathan

Attorlathe

 

 

Nihtscada

Aelf, elf

Thone, thung, poisonous plant

Myxen, dung

Niht, night

Scada, shade, shadow

Attor, poison, bile

Lathe, antidote, enemy

Sorbus aucupariae Rowan

Sorbarios

 

 

 

Cuicbeam

Cwic 

 Cwic

 

 
Stachys officinalis
Betony
      Betonica Biscopwyrt Betonicam Betonican Betonica Betonican Betonice
Betoce
Bisceopwyrt Biscopwyrt Brunewyrt
Betonica
Betonican
Biscopwyrt
Betonica Betonice Betonie
lęsse Bisceopwyrt
V
etonica
Stachys - Spike, referring to the flower 
Officinalis - of the [apothecary’s] workshop 
Betonica - Pliny says betony takes its name from the Spanish tribe that first discovered its virtues, the Vettones; others trace it to Gaelic bewton (bew, head; ton, good), referring to its use as a headache remedy

Stellaria media

Chickweed

 

 

 

Cicena mete

Cicena mete

Modera cicenmete

 

Stellaria
   holostea

 Greater stitchwort

 

 

 

Aethelfer-thincwyrte

Aethelfer-thincgwyrte

Aethelferthing-
   wyrt

Aethelferth-
   incwyrt

Aethelfyrd-
   ingwyrt

Ostrago sticwyn

Aethel, noble

Ferth, spirit

Fyrding, army

Cicena, kitchen

Mete, food

Stic, pierce, stick

Symphatum officinale

Comfrey

 

 

 

Banwyrt

Banwyrt

Confirma

Confirman... galluc

Gallus

Violam... banwyrt

Viola... ban wyrt

Galluc

Consolde

Banwyrt

Greate banwyrt

Galluc

Galluces

Banwyrt

Adriaca... galluc

Consolde, consolidate, draw together

Ban, bone

Wyrt, plant

Tanacetum balsamita

Costmary

Costum

 

Costus

 

Cost

Costes

Coses

Cost

Aencglisc cost

Costa, cost

Cost, test, prove 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Tanacetum
   parthenium

Feverfew

Febrefugiam

 

 

Centauriam minorem... curnelle... febrifugam

Feferfuge

Feuerfuge Feferugian

Pyretran

Feferfuge

Feferfugean

Feferfuigan

Feferfulgan

Feferfugian

Febrefugia, feferfuge

Fefer, fever

Fuge, flee

Tanacetum vulgare

Tansy

Tanazitam

 

 

 

Heldan

Helde

Disman

Helde

Heldan

Tagantes held

Anicetum held

 

Taxus baccata

Yew 

 

 

 

 

Eowberge

Eow

 

 Taxus... iw

Eow, yew

Berge, berry 

Thymus serpyllum

Wild thyme

 

 

 

 

Cunille

Wuducunille

Wuducunellan

Cunellan

Fille serpyllum

Bradeleac

Breade leaces Fille

Reade fillan

Serpillum fille

Cerpillum fil

Serpellim fille

Wudu, wild, wood
Fille,
leaf

Reade, red

Tilia
Basswood

     

 

 

Linde

Lind seno, tilia

Lind, linden, basswood

Trifolium pratense

Clover

 

 

 

Claefre

Crision... claefre

Claefran

Claefer wyrt

Hwit claefran

Reade claefre

Smalan claeferwyrt

Claefre

Uiola... clafre

Uiola ... claefre

Claefer, clover

Hwit, white

Reade, red 

Trigonella foenum graecum

Fenugreek

Fenigrecum

 

 

 

Fenogrecum

Fenumgrecum

Fenugreco

 

 

Feno, hay, grass

Grecum, Greek 

Tussilago

Colt’s foot

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coltgręig, caballopodia,  ungula caballi

Lancge, long

Clitan, coltsfoot
Graeig, gray


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