Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants whose names begin with U through Z
from these 9th and 10th century sources

Capitulare de Villis

Plan of St. Gall

 

Strabo's Hortulus

Pseudo-Apuleius

Leechbook of Bald

Lacnunga

Aelfric

 

 

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Plants from U through Z

A list of plant names found in these sources, commonly used names in Old English,
and tentative identification by scientific name

Short list of plants cited most frequently in these MSS

 

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Ulex Europaeus

Furze

Gorse

 

 

 

Gorst

Tribulus... gorst 

Cwicbeam

Gorst

 

Ramnus furs

Ramnus fyrs

Cwic, alive

Beam, tree

Gorst, bristle

Fyrs, furze, gorse

Ramnum, bramble

Tribulus, thistle

Ulmas
Elm

     

 

Wice

Elmrind

Elmrinde

Elmes

 

Ulmtreow

Ulm, elm

Rind, bark

Treow, tree

Wice, living

Urtica dioica

Nettle (a potherb)

 

 

 

Urticam... netele

Uritca... netele

Netelan

Brittanice, hǽwen  hyndele

Netle

Stime, stune

Greatan netlan

Micle worthig netle

Netelan

Netle

Netlan

Stithe

Netelan

Netele

Wergulu

Urtica... netle

Urtica... netele

Urtica... netel

 

Brittanice, from Britain

Haewen, blue, purple, green, discolored

Hnydele, cushion?

Hnitol, striking, thrusting

Urtica, to burn

Stime, sting 

Wergulu, evil 

Vaccinium myrtillus

Bilberry

 

 

 

 

Hǽþbergean

 

Branwyrt... vaccinium

Haeth, heath

Bergean, berry

Bran, brown

Vaccinium, of cows

Wyrt, plant

Veratrum alba

White hellebore

 

 

 

Elleborum album... tunsincg wyrt... wedeberge

 

Tungilsinwyrt

Elleborum album,  túnsincgwyrt

Tuningwyrt

Tuningwyrte

 

 

 

Album, white

Tungol, heavenly body, constellation

Thung, poison

Miclan, great

Ella, from helle, shining

Bora, food of beasts

Wyrt, plant

Verbascum

Hedge taper

 

 

 

Feltwyrt

Uerbascum... felt wyrt

Uerbascus.. feldwyrt

escadwyrt

Gescáduyrt, berbescum

Verbascum,  feltwyrt

Feldwyrt, anadonia

 

Auandonia feldewyrt

Auadonia feldwyrt

Auadonia feltwurt

Audonia feltwyrt

Felt, felt, carded wool

Gescad, shading, shielding

Anadonia, against weakness

Verbascum, leafy, foliage

Verbena officinalis

Vervain

 

 

 

Aescþrote

Berbénam

Peristéri

Uermenaca... aescthrotu

Berbena

Peristereon... berbenam

Berbine

Æscþrotan

Aescthrotu

Aescthrote

Peristéri

Aescthrotan

Berbene

Annuosa, aescthrotu

Biscopwyrtil

Aesc, ashy, soft gray

Annuus, yearly

Biscop, bishop, overseer

Throte, throat

Peristéri, Greek for dove

Verbena, from werb, to turn, bend

Wyrtil, wurtzle, root

Veronica beccabunga

Brook lime

 

 

 

 

Hleomoc

Hleomocan

Hleomoce

Leomucan

Lemocan

Lemocan

Leomucan

 

Becca, German bach, brook

Bunge, OHG, bulb

Hleo, hleow, warm, sheltered

Vinca minor

Periwinkle

 

 

 

 

Fica perfica

Winclan

Smalan singrenan

Peruica

Uica

Uinca peruenke

Uinca peruince UInca perpince

Pervincire, to entwine, bind, fetter

Smalan, small

Sin, always, forever

Grene, green

Vinca, to conquer

Scientific name
Common name

Capitulare de Villis
c 800 CE

Plan of St Gall
c 820 CE

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Pseudo Apuleius

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Aelfric
c 990 CE

 

Viscum album

Mistletoe

 

 

 

Ocimum, mistel

Ocimus, mistel

Mistel

Acmistel

Ocimum, mistel

 

 

Ac, oak

Mistel, perhaps from mixen, dung, as its seeds must pass through a bird's digestive tract in order to germinate

Toe, from tan, twig, where seed would be deposited

Viscum, sticky

Ocimus, basil

Vitis vinifera

Grape, green

 

 

 

Winberian

Winbergum

Wingeard

Wíngeardes

Wintreowes

Wintreow

 

Vitis wintreow

Hwit wilde
  wingeard

Hwit wingears

Vintreow

Hwit, white, light

Wingeard, vinyard

Vin, win, wine

Berg, berian, berry

Treow, tree

Zingiber

Ginger

       

Gingifer

Gingiber

Gingifran

Gingiferan

Gingifre

 

Zingiber, Sanskrit srngaveram, horned root


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F.D. Drewitt

 

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