Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Casual Plants in Britain

Archeophytes

Native Plants

British Plants Classified by When and How
They Were Introduced

Native plants

 

 

are plants that have grown in Britain without human intervention since the Late Glacial Period (about 16,000 years ago), as evidenced in fossil and paleobotanical records. Some 1407 species of plants are considered to be native to Britain.
 
Archeophytes are plants introduced to Britain, intentionally or unintentionally, by humans between c. 4,000 BCE and 1492 CE; and have since become naturalized -- they can now survive without human assistance. Britain is home to 157 archeophytes.
Casual plants are common, non-native plants that are short-lived in Britain unless given human assistance. These include many species cultivated in gardens. About 240 plants considered to be casuals have been common in Britain since prehistoric times.
 

Sources:

Archeophytes in Britain

Online Atlas of British and Irish Flora

Wildflower Society List of British Plants

 

   

Casual Plants in Britain

Archeological evidence
(
fossil, paleo-botanical, etc.)

Documentary evidence from herbals, charters, inventories, placenames, etc.

Alcea rosea, hollyhock

 

Medieval gardens

Allium cepa, onion

 

Medieval gardens

Allium porrum, leek

 

Medieval gardens

Allium sativum, garlic

 

Medieval gardens

Anethum graveolens, dill

 

Medieval gardens

Anthriscus cerefolium, chervil

 

Medieval gardens

Atriplex hortensis, garden orache

 

Medieval gardens

Avena sativa, common oats

Archeology

 

Avena strigosa, bristle oats

Archeology

 

Borago officinali, borage

 

Medieval gardens

Calendula officinalis, calendula

 

Medieval gardens

Cannabis sativa, hemp

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Cicer arietinum, chickpea

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Coriandrum sativum, coriander

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Cuminum cyminum, cumin

 

Medieval gardens

Eruca vesicaria, salad rocket

 

Medieval gardens

Hordeum distichon, two-row barley

Archeology

 

Hordeum vulgare, barley

Archeology

 

Lactuca sativa, lettuce

 

Medieval gardens

Lens culinaris, lentil

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Lepidium sativum, garden cress

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Pisum sativum, garden pea

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Portulaca oleracea, purslane

 

Medieval gardens

Raphanus raphanistrum sativus, radish

 

 

Secale cereale, rye

Archeology

 

Spinacia oleracea, spinach

 

Medieval gardens

Trigonella foenum-graecum, fenugreek

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Vicia faba, broad bean

Archeology

 

 

Archeophytes

Native Plants


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Botanists are among those who know that, in spite of the rude shocks of life,
it is well to have lived, and to have seen the everlasting beauty of the world.
F.D. Drewitt

 

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