OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312



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Historical Periods

The precise dating of historical periods varies greatly, from historian to historian and from geographic region to geographic region. Approximate dates for historical periods in Western Europe and Britain are given below. Wyrtig focuses primarily on the period from about 1 CE (late Classical) to about 1000 CE (Early Middle Ages), in Britain and France -- with occasional excursions beyond these dates and these boundaries.




Iron Age
Western Europe

1000 BCE - 43 CE

The prehistoric period during which metal tools were primarily made of iron. In Britain, begins about 800 BCE and ends with Roman conquest.

Greco-Roman world

c. 600 BCE -
 c. 400 CE

Greek and Roman civilizations evolve and become dominant in Mediterranean; this period begins with the poetry of Homer, and ends with the death of the last Roman emperor.

Middle Ages
Western Europe

c. 500 CE-
 1400 CE

The term "middle ages" comes from Latin medium aevum, middle era; medieval is an adjectival form.

Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval period

c. 500 CE -
 1000 CE

Once called the “Dark Ages” (which roughly covered the time from the fall of the Roman Empire, c. 400 CE, to the reign of Charlemagne, c. 800 CE), this term is seldom used now, as we become better informed about the accomplishments of this period. These terms are also replacing “Saxon” or “Anglo-Saxon” with their ethnologically limiting associations.

   High Middle Ages

1000-1300 CE


   Late Middle Ages

1300-1400 CE

The Middle Ages end at about the time of the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453.


1400–1650 CE

The Renaissance began in Italy and spread from there to northern Europe and Britain.

Modern Age

   Early Modern Age

   Industrial Age

1650 to present




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Botanists are among those who know that, in spite of the rude shocks of life,
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F.D. Drewitt


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